The structuralists & post-structuralists have very different ideas from on another. They both are examined and engaged with graphic design.
- Philosophy movement - Europe - late 1800’s - 1960’s
- Focuses on society as a system
- Differential relations are the key to understanding culture & society
- Focus on material practices as points for analysis
- Large period of time, classified as a modernist time
- Are things the same/ different to each other
- How are cultures/ value systems different
- Educational system-material practices
- Linguistics - Study of language, how language makes meaning and works as a system. Compares structural systems between language
- Semiotics – Structural system of analysing how language works to create meaning.
1. Cut Sound
-Each word = Sign = Signifier & Signified
- Signifier is the material aspect sound/ marks written.
- Signified is the meaning, what is realised in your mind when you hear that sound.
Syntagmatic axis Paradigmatic axis
- Structure and organisation systems of language
GRAPHIC DESIGN MODERNISM
The author is the analyist and has to find structure. The author dematerialises the work and is hard to challenge. The author is someone who writes/produces something. An author is anybody that makes anything. For example, an author can be someone who creates a piece of artwork. Even with objects like materials, as a viewer you gain knowledge of its texture. For example is something is soft, by feeling it you find that out.
POST-STRUCTURALISM - AFTER STRUCTURALISM
Built on structuralism, critics structuralism. Moves from uncovering and investigating the system to looking at how the audience and users of the systems utilise, impact on and interact with these systems.
Roland Barthes's “The Death of the Author” written in 1968.
- Graphic Design is a process constantly generating material, overlapping/layering it.
- Post-modernist – being an author (identifiable).
1. Josef Müller-Brockmann
2. Otto Neurath & Gerd
Structuralism & Post-structuralism
3. Herbert Bayer
4. Beatrice Warde
1. Roland Barthes
2. Michel Foucault
3. Jacques Derrida
4. Wolfgang Weingart
5. Ellen Lupton & J. Abbott Miller
1. Ferdinand de Saussure
2. Claude Lévi-Strauss
[[[ LINKS TO OTHER PAGES ARE IN THE TURQUOISE COLOUR OBJECT BOXES ]]]
3. Vladimir Propp